Conceptual transformation of vocational education in the 1930s-1940s (the experience of factory apprenticeships)

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In the context of the implementation of a new educational project as "Professionality", the domestic historical and pedagogical experience is being updated. This article touches upon the process of transformation of factory apprenticeships into a completely new model - FZO. Speaking from the position of historicism, the transition from one model to another allowed us to look at the key components of education and upbringing in the VET system. It was during the period of 1930-1940s that the accelerated construction of large industrial enterprises took place. At the same time, the foreign policy climate also forced the Soviet leadership to radically reform vocational education. So, the lesson and extracurricular (military-patriotic) work on the training of personnel of the lower professional level was intensified. However, these measures were not enough, which in turn led to a revision of many aspects in training and education. Firstly, the order and requirements in the training of teaching staff, as well as the leadership of the FZO, changed. Many of the teachers had no experience in teaching working youth and made serious methodological mistakes in the educational process. Secondly, the practical experience acquired in factories and factories was haphazard. Therefore, it was necessary to develop uniform state standards and thematic plans. Thirdly, the growing anti-state cells seriously undermined the foundations of education in schools. Accordingly, it was necessary to reformat the vector of educational and patriotic training of specialists. The conceptual transformation of the professional level of education made it possible to reorient many aspects of education in the shortest possible time. Emphasis was placed on the circle of practice and the exact sciences, designed to improve the practical qualifications of the working people. Consequently, today our state is facing difficult socio-economic conditions, when dependence on imports and the outflow of personnel abroad can lead to destructive consequences. Therefore, we need to rely on the historical and pedagogical experience to objectively approach the solution of problems in the link of secondary vocational education.


Professionalism, transformation, factory schools, concept, methods, educational policy, historical experience, working youth

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IDR: 140294647

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