“...The time has come to put an end to the Armenian issue once and for all”: the problem of the Armenian Vilayets of the Ottoman empire in the international agenda in 1894-1912

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Introduction. The interest in the “Armenian issue” is linked to the current international agenda and the impact of significant historical events on it, such as the genocide of 1915. Methods and materials. The interdisciplinary principle determines the use of traditional historical approaches (historical-genetic and historical-comparative) and international relations theories (defensive realism) simultaneously. The sources contain the published documents and publicism, as well as the archival documents of the Archives of Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire and the State Archives of the Russian Federation. Analysis. Starting with the signing of the Berlin Treaty and the introduction of an article into it obliging Ottoman Porte to reform the management of the Armenian population, the inclusion of the “Armenian issue” in the foreign policy agenda of European states began. At the same time, the responsibility for the reforms carried out by the Ottomans was collective, and the leadership of Russia in this matter was considered impossible. Collectivity was the reason for the erosion of responsibility; the Sultan was not actually made to reform. With the beginning of the “Hamid pogroms” in 1894, the “Armenian issue” threatened the balanced position of the powers in relation to the Ottoman Empire and actualized the issue of the Ottoman Porte’s responsibility for reforms in the Armenian vilayets. Obviously, Russia could be the most effective. France, Germany, and Italy initially did not plunge into this problem; in Asian Turkey, the main actors were still Great Britain and Russia.


Eastern policy, “armenian issue”, diplomatic struggle, Russia, great britain, ottoman porte, reforms of the armenian vilayets

Короткий адрес: https://sciup.org/149144486

IDR: 149144486   |   DOI: 10.15688/jvolsu4.2023.5.10

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