New technologies for vegetable production in greenhouses
Автор: Sirota S.M., Balashova I.T., Kozar E.G., Pinchuk E.V.
Журнал: Овощи России @vegetables
Статья в выпуске: 4 (33), 2016 года.
First decade of XXI century is characterized by significant augmentation in vegetable world’s production. Average annual vegetable production has been 346 million tons, and it has exceeded the average annual potato production (318 million tons). It has occurred due to the use of up-to-date technologies for vegetable production and, particularly, in greenhouses. In Russian Federation, the total production of vegetables was 5 275.6 thousand tons in 2015 that was 13.3% more than in 2014. But the total vegetable production in greenhouses was only 722.8 thousand tons, that was 0.7% less than in 2014 (728.1 thousand tons). It can be explained that the old technologies have been used for many greenhouses around Russia. Up-to-date technologies for greenhouses are described in the article. Small-volume hydroponics. Plants are grown in mineral wadding, packed up in the special chutes. Mineral nutrition and water are supplied through special pipe with many branch pipes toward each plant. Advantage: pH and nutrition are maintained, consumption of water and mineral nutrition are optimized, and that improves plants grow control. Expenditures of labor decreased, quality of fruit became better and the yield increased significantly by 45-50 kg/m2 comparing with growing on the soil (25-30 kg/m2). Hydroponics with flowing water (salad production lines). Conveyor for salad and vegetable growing on horizontal moving chutes with flowing water and nutrition was developed. Advantage: high level of automation and mechanization of all processes of growing increased the effectiveness of the use of greenhouse areas (we can place 30% plants more at the same area). Seedling production lines. Production lines for seedlings enable to grow vegetables and leafy vegetables on stationary benches, being furnished with periodical nutrition and water supply at times. Advantage: 700 seedlings additionally on each m2 a year. Future technologies are described, there is so called City Farms, which have been developed by several companies, such as ‘PlantLab’, ‘Philips’, ‘Mirai’. Multi-tiered hydroponics on narrow benches has been developed since 2013 at VNIISSOK. Particularities of breeding program for multi-tiered hydroponics have been shown.
Vegetable production, greenhouse, new technologies
Короткий адрес: https://sciup.org/140205178