Prevention of nuclear damage caused by iodine and cesium radionuclides to the thyroid, pancreas and other organs

Автор: Venturi S.

Журнал: Juvenis scientia @jscientia

Рубрика: Обзорные статьи

Статья в выпуске: 2 т.8, 2022 года.

Бесплатный доступ

In times of danger of severe international conflicts with fear of the use of atomic weapons and accidents in nuclear power plants, a so-called "Disaster Medicine" has been created to reduce the damage in affected populations and territories. Radionuclide contamination in terrestrial ecosystems has nowadays reached a dangerous level. The most frequent and studied artificial radionuclides are iodine (131-I) and cesium (137-Cs and 134-Cs), which are both on the rise in the world. In humans, these elements are captured and metabolized by the thyroid, pancreas, mammary and salivary glands, cerebrospinal fluid and brain, thymus and numerous other organs and excrete with stool and urine. In organs, these radionuclides are a serious danger that can cause cancers, and through inflammatory, carcinogenic and necrotic mechanisms also thyroiditis, pancreatitis and functional deficiencies as well as diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism and mental damage. The Author reports autoradiographic and scintigraphic studies describing some, little-known, damage to organs caused by radionuclides and in particular, pancreatic and thyroid cancer, chronic pancreatitis, thyroiditis and diabetes mellitus, whose incidence rate is gradually rising worldwide. Some methods of radionuclide removal and cancer prevention are also suggested.


Radio-iodine, radio-cesium, thyroid cancer, pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus

Короткий адрес:

IDR: 14124545   |   DOI: 10.32415/jscientia_2022_8_2_5-14

Список литературы Prevention of nuclear damage caused by iodine and cesium radionuclides to the thyroid, pancreas and other organs

  • GBD 2017 Pancreatic Cancer Collaborators. The global, regional, and national burden of pancreatic cancer and its attributable risk factors in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;4(12):934-947. doi: 10.1016/ S2468-1253(19)30347-4.
  • Hauptmann M, Daniels RD, Cardis E, et al. Epidemiological Studies of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation and Cancer: Summary Bias Assessment and Meta-Analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2020;2020(56):188-200. DOI: 10.1093/jncimonographs/lgaa010.
  • Cardis E, Krewski D, Boniol M, et al. Estimates of the cancer burden in Europe from radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl accident. Int J Cancer. 2006;119(6):1224-1235. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.22037.
  • Tuttle RM, Vaisman F, Tronko MD. Clinical presentation and clinical outcomes in Chernobyl-related paedi-atric thyroid cancers: what do we know now? What can we expect in the future?. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol). 2011;23(4):268-275. DOI: 10.1016/j.clon.2011.01.178.
  • Wojcik A. Reflections on effects of low doses and risk inference based on the UNSCEAR 2021 report on 'biological mechanisms relevant for the inference of cancer risks from low-dose and low-dose-rate radiation'. J Radiol Prot. 2022;42(2):10.1088/1361-6498/ac591c. Published 2022 Mar 17. DOI: 10.1088/1361-6498/ ac591c.
  • Harmon, K. Japan's Post-Fukushima Earthquake Health Woes Go Beyond Radiation Effects. Scientific American. 2012. March 2.
  • Nelson A, Ullberg S, Kristoffersson H, Ronnback C. Distribution of radiocesium in mice. An autoradiographic study. Acta radiol. 1961;55:374-384. DOI: 10.3109/00016926109175132.
  • Ullberg S, Ewaldsson B. Distribution of radio-iodine studied by whole-body autoradiography. Acta Radiol Ther Phys Biol. 1964;2:24-32. DOI: 10.3109/02841866409134127.
  • Pellerin P. La technique d'autoradiographie anatomique à la tem-pérature de l'azote liquide. Path Biol 1961;9:233-252.
  • Rosoff B, Cohn Sh, Spencer H. I. Cesium-137metabolism in man. Radiat Res. 1963;19:643-654.
  • Lestaevel P, Racine R, Bensoussan H, et al. Césium 137: propriétés et effets biologiques après contamination interne (Caesium 137: Properties and biological effects resulting of an internal contamination). Médecine Nucléaire. 2010;34(2):108-118. (in French). DOI: 10.1016/j.mednuc.2009.12.003.
  • Venturi S. Preliminari ad uno studio sui rapporti tra cancro gastrico e carenza alimentare iodica: prospet-tivespecifiche diprevenzione. Ed. Botticelli. Novafeltria, Italy, 1985.
  • Venturi S, Venturi M. Iodide, thyroid and stomach carcinogenesis: evolutionary story of a primitive antioxidant?. Eur J Endocrinol. 1999;140(4):371-372. DOI: 10.1530/eje.0.1400371.
  • Venturi S. Evolutionary significance of iodine. Current Chemical Biology. 2011;5(3):155-162. DOI: 10.2174/2212796811105030155.
  • Venturi S. Correlation between radioactive Cesium and the increase of pancreatic cancer: a hypothesis. Biosfera. 2020;12(4):242-252. DOI: 10.24855/biosfera.v12i4.556. EDN: ABRQQD.
  • Venturi S. Cesium in Biology, Pancreatic Cancer, and Controversy in High and Low Radiation Exposure Damage — Scientific, Environmental, Geopolitical, and Economic Aspects. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(17):8934. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph18178934.
  • Venturi S. Diabetes, Pancreatitis, Pancreatic Cancer and Radioactive Cesium. ResearchGate. Preprint. January 2022.
  • The International Chernobyl Project. Vienna: international atomic energy agency; 1991. https://www.iaea. org/publications/3756/the-international-chernobyl-project.
  • U.S. Food and Drug Administration (F.D.A.), Radiation Emergencies. 2013. Oct 20.
  • Aaseth J, Nurchi VM, Andersen O. Medical Therapy of Patients Contaminated with Radioactive Cesium or Iodine. Biomolecules. 2019;9(12):856. DOI: 10.3390/biom9120856.
  • Hays MT. Estimation of total body iodine content in normal young men. Thyroid. 2001;11(7):671-675. DOI: 10.1089/105072501750362745.
  • Salter WT. The Endocrine Function of Iodine. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1940.
  • Sturm A, Buchholz B, Mitt IV. Jodverteilung im menschlichen und tierishen organismus in ihrer beziehung zurschilddruse. Deutsches Arch f klin Med. 1928;161:227-247.
  • Hamolsky MW. Measurement of thyroid function. Part 1: Physiology and biochemistry of the thyroid gland. In: Blahd W (ed) Nuclear Medicine. The Blakiston Division: New York, Toronto, Sydney, London, 1965. p. 186.
  • Margaria R, De Caro L. Principi di Fisiologia Umana, Fourth Edition, Volume 2. Casa Editrice Dr. Francesco Vallardi, Milano. 1967. p. 729.
  • Delange FM, Ermans AE. Iodine deficiency. In: Braverman LE, Utiger RD (eds) Werner and Ingbar's The Thyroid. Lippincott-Raven: Philadelphia, New York, 1996. p 296.
  • Brown-Grant K. Extrathyroidal Iodide Concentrating Mechanisms. Physiol. 1961.
  • Gemici C, Yaprak G, Özdemir S, et al. Volumetric decrease of pancreas after abdominal irradiation, it is time to consider pancreas as an organ at risk for radiotherapy planning. Radiat Oncol. 2018;13(1):238. DOI: 10.1186/s13014-018-1189-5.
  • Bandazhevsky YI. Chronic Cs-137 incorporation in children's organs. Swiss Med Wkly. 2003;133(35-36):488-490.
  • Ito C. Trends in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1994;24 Suppl:S29-S35. DOI: 10.1016/0168-8227(94)90224-0.
  • Zalutskaya A, Bornstein SR, Mokhort T, Garmaev D. Did the Chernobyl incident cause an increase in Type 1 diabetes mellitus incidence in children and adolescents?. Diabetologia. 2004;47(1):147-148. DOI: 10.1007/ s00125-003-1271-9. EDN: MFMCOJ.
  • Chung YS, Harada KH, Igari K, et al. The incidence of diabetes among the non-diabetic residents in Kawauchi village, Fukushima, who experienced evacuation after the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant disaster. Environ Health Prev Med. 2020;25(1):13. DOI: 10.1186/s12199-020-00852-x.
  • Japanese Global Data Healthcare. Burden of pancreatic cancer is higher in Japan than other markets. Pharmaceutical technology. Dec. 15, 2020. pancreatic-cancer-japan/26
  • Nielsen P, Dresow B, Fischer R, Heinrich HC. Inhibition of intestinal absorption and decorporation of radiocaesium in humans by hexacyanoferrates(II). Int J Rad Appl Instrum B. 1991;18(7):821-826. DOI: 10.1016/0883-2897(91)90025-g
  • Melo DR, Lundgren DL, Muggenburg BA, Guilmette RA. Prussian Blue decorporation of 137Cs in beagles of different ages. Health Phys. 1996;71(2):190-197. DOI: 10.1097/00004032-199608000-00010.
  • Altagracia-Martinez M, Kravzov-Jinich J, Martinez-Nunez JM, et al. Prussian blue as an antidote for radioactive thallium and cesium poisoning. Orphan Drug Res. Rev. 2012;2:13-21. DOI: 10.2147/ODRR.S31881.
  • Nuclear Power in Japan. World Nuclear Association. Retrieved 17 June 2012. information-library/country-profiles/countries-g-n/japan-nuclear-power.aspx.
  • Major nuclear accidents around the world. China Daily, 2017;17(3). world/2011-03/17/content_12185169.htm
  • Atlas of cancer mortality in the European Union and the European Economic Area 1993-1997. IARC Sci Publ. 2008;(159):1-259.
  • Uccelli R, Mastrantonio M, Altavista P, et al. Pancreatic cancer mortality in Italy (1981-2015): a population-based study on geographic distribution and temporal trends. Annals of Cancer Epidemiology, 2021;5. DOI: 10.21037/ace-20-23.
  • Zrielykh L. Analysis of statistics of pancreatic cancer in Ukraine for a period of 10 years. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2020;38(15_suppl):e16721-e16721. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2020.38.15_suppl.e16721.
  • Leung KM, Shabat G, Lu P, et al. Trends in Solid Tumor Incidence in Ukraine 30 Years After Chernobyl. J Glob Oncol. 2019;5:1-10. DOI: 10.1200/JGO.19.00099
  • Numeri del Cancro in Italia. Associazione Italiana di Oncologia Medica; 2018.
Статья обзорная