Branch-wise economy. Рубрика в журнале - Economic and Social Changes: Facts, Trends, Forecast

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Accounting of multiplier effect as a required element in assessing the effects of social programs

Accounting of multiplier effect as a required element in assessing the effects of social programs

Lavrikova Yuliya Georgievna, Suvorova Arina Valerevna, Kotlyarova Svetlana Nikolaevna

Статья научная

The article substantiates the importance of taking into account indirect effects of the programs, projects, activities (mainly social) when deciding on the need to implement them. The problem of providing society with decent living conditions is studied. The article proves that in spite of some positive trends in the Russian construction market the issues of housing availability do not lose their significance. It notes that a variety of approaches to solving this problem have been developed, that is why it is critical to assess the effectiveness of each solution in order to choose the most suitable one. One of the tools for alleviating this problem - a program of housing construction savings - is discussed in detail; by means of the specially designed universal computational model we determine fiscal effectiveness of this program application in the Sverdlovsk Oblast. The analysis shows that the accounting of multiplier effect reveals the full range of possible effects of the program that can significantly affect the adoption of the decision to initiate actions necessary for their implementation.

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Analysis of transaction costs in logistics and the methodologies for their information reflection for automotive companies

Analysis of transaction costs in logistics and the methodologies for their information reflection for automotive companies

Kovrizhnykh Olga Evgenevna, Nechaeva Polina Aleksandrovna

Статья научная

Transaction costs emerge in different types of logistics activities and influence the material flow and the accompanying financial and information flows; due to this fact, the information support and assessment are important tasks for the enterprise. The paper analyzes transaction costs in logistics for automotive manufacturers; according to the analysis, the level of these costs in any functional area of “logistics supply” ranges from 1.5 to 20%. These are only the official figures of transaction costs of enterprises that do not take into consideration implicit costs. Despite the growing interest in transaction costs in logistics in the latest fifteen years, this topic is covered rather poorly in Russian literature; the definition of “transaction costs” is unclear, there is no technique of their information reflection and assessment. We have developed the methods for information reflection of transaction costs that can be used by automotive enterprises. Each enterprise will have an opportunity to choose the most suitable technique for information reflection of transaction costs or to compare the level of transaction costs when using different techniques...

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Approaches to the assessment of the natural capital of forests and the prospects for modernization of forest management in the context of green economy

Approaches to the assessment of the natural capital of forests and the prospects for modernization of forest management in the context of green economy

Noskov Vladimir A., Shishelov Maksim A.

Статья научная

The goal of the paper is to study approaches to the assessment of natural capital of forests, especially forest resources, and the prospects for modernization of forest management in the context of green economy. We show that current socio-economic development strategies in most countries encourage rapid accumulation of physical, financial and human capital through excessive depletion and degradation of natural capital, which includes natural resources and ecosystems. In order to prevent this threat, it is necessary to move to the concept of green economy that involves effective use of natural resources, ensuring the sustainability of natural ecosystems and reducing the use of resources in production and consumption. In this regard, we study indicators and methodological approaches used for measuring and assessing forest resources in the global and domestic practice. We reveal the shortcomings and limitations of their application, which are associated with the quantitative assessment of the state of forests, without taking into account qualitative and structural changes...

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Assessing the Impact of Innovation and Investment Activity on the Formation of an Export-Oriented Agricultural Economy

Assessing the Impact of Innovation and Investment Activity on the Formation of an Export-Oriented Agricultural Economy

Derunova E.A., Vasilchenko M.Ya., Shabanov V.L.

Статья научная

The issue concerning the formation of an export-oriented agricultural economy is associated with the need to assess its innovation and investment activity and analyze the quality of state policy to stimulate innovation and high technology products in agricultural production. High differentiation of Russian regions by natural and climatic conditions and the level of resource provision are factors that hinder the formation of new export positions, which predetermines the need to improve state investment policy, considering regional differences. The purpose of this study is to identify the dependence of the export level of agricultural products on the level of innovation and investment activity, the development of recommendations to improve innovation and investment activity of territorial and sectoral agricultural systems. We put forward the following hypothesis: one of the most important factors in increasing the volume of agricultural products exports of the region is the level of innovation and investment activity. As a methodological basis we use theoretical approaches of foreign and Russian authors to assessing the impact of innovation and investment processes on the increase of export potential, as well as the formation of balanced export-oriented agricultural systems in the territorial and sectoral sections. We develop a model estimating the relationship between investment in fixed capital in agriculture, gross output of the industry, and exports of agricultural products using methods of multivariate statistical analysis. We assessed the dynamics of regional innovation and investment development and compared the selected typological groups of Russian regions by their production and export efficiency, the resources used and the results achieved. The novelty and significance of the developed model lies in the possibility of its application for diagnostics and monitoring of the state of territorial sectoral and regional innovation and investment agrosystems. For each type of region we proposed differentiated strategies of state regulation aimed at overcoming the limitations of low innovation and investment activity in the formation of exportoriented agricultural economy. The results of the study are of practical value for the development and implementation of targeted mechanisms and tools to improve the efficiency of innovation and investment activities in order to ensure the leading position of the regions in exports of agricultural products.

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Assessment of the tourist potential of the region's hunting sector (case study of the Vologda oblast)

Assessment of the tourist potential of the region's hunting sector (case study of the Vologda oblast)

Trudov Yuriy Nikolayevich

Статья научная

The author, using his own methodology, through the example of the Vologda Oblast, reveals the main parameters of gross turnover in the hunting sector with regard to hunting services; provides methodological tools for calculating gross turnover of tourist services in hunting, determines the degree of development and prospects of the tourism potential of the hunting sector, the role of hunting tourism in the region’s economic development.

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Boosting domestic demand as a driving force of economic growth (on the example of domestic tourism sphere)

Boosting domestic demand as a driving force of economic growth (on the example of domestic tourism sphere)

Lukin Evgenii V., Leonidova Ekaterina G., Sidorov Maksim A.

Статья научная

Changing structural proportions manifested in the narrowing of domestic demand for goods and services is a trend in modern development of the Russian economy, which experiences an impact of a system-wide economic crisis and the current foreign policy and foreign economic situation. This leads to underconsumption of goods and services, and thus to a reduction of incentives for enterprises to increase production. Meanwhile, stimulation of domestic consumer demand can be considered as a factor capable of ensuring economic growth. In this regard, there is a need for scientific substantiation of measures to promote domestic demand, which in the current economic conditions can change the structural relationships and thus ensure economic growth. In our study, an attempt is made to calculate the potential economic effect of stimulating Russian citizens' consumption of goods and services produced by domestic tourism sector. General scientific methods such as analysis, synthesis, comparison, generalization and original methodological tools based on input-output models are used as a methodological basis of the study...

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Branch analysis in the context of evolutionary development of economic systems

Branch analysis in the context of evolutionary development of economic systems

Berkovich Margarita Izraylevna, Komarova Ekaterina Aleksandrovna

Статья научная

Upgrading of Russian economy claims special attention to long-term problems of its development in order to make it stable and purposeful. The necessity to improve social and economic parameters and comprehensive innovation development of territorial economic systems requires elaboration of sound policy and regions' strategies in relation to regional branches that form their potential. The article proposes an approach to reform national economic sectors on the basis of their life cycle analysis and allocation of functional features of a single mesoeconomic system. The research is aimed at selecting key parameters of sectors' development at the regional level. The evolutionary approach that serves as the basis for the methodology gives an opportunity to determine the factors that have the greatest impact on life cycle dynamics. The article singles out the following main groups of factors: resources, product, technology, market, banking sector, public policy. By analyzing life cycles of the Yaroslavl region's chemical industries (synthetic rubber and carbon black production) it is concluded that the only way to ensure sustainable development of branches lies in the continuous implementation of innovations, a process affected by cyclicity and determined by factors of exogenous and endogenous nature.

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Building a conceptual model of sector development and assessment of the system-building effect

Building a conceptual model of sector development and assessment of the system-building effect

Shakleina Marina V., Shaklein Konstantin I.

Статья научная

The article is devoted to forming a strategic vision of rabbit breeding sector taking into account the state priorities. The relevance of the topic is caused by the growing shortage of dietary meat consumption in Russia, which leads to deteriorating quality of food and reduces the quality of life. According to analysis of domestic research on the current problem, more attention is paid to studying the Soviet experience of planning, productionandresourceanalysisofthesectorandtheneedforitsdevelopment. Lackofexperience in strategic planning in rabbit breeding in domestic science has become the cause of vulnerability during the perestroika (reformation) period, resulting in a dramatic decline in production. In this regard, there is a need to improve the mechanisms of integrated development of the sector taking into account the general theory of strategizing. The purpose for the study is to develop a model of sustainable development of the rabbit breeding sector taking into account the assessment of the system-building effect of related activities...

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Comparative analysis of trends in the development of finance of large corporations in the metallurgical and coal industries in Russia in the context of global challenges

Comparative analysis of trends in the development of finance of large corporations in the metallurgical and coal industries in Russia in the context of global challenges

Pechenskaya-polishchuk Mariya A., Malyshev Mikhail K.

Статья научная

Since the beginning of the escalation of the Ukrainian situation, the Collective West has imposed an unprecedented number of sanctions against the Russian economy. Restrictions in international trade operations and, in some cases, their full termination have forced large domestic businesses to look for “friendly” markets and develop new logistics routes. And if at the end of the first half of 2022, the oil and gas industry has shown significant growth, some Russian corporations of metallurgy and coal industry were under a jeopardy. Despite favorable conditions in the first months of 2022, the financial results of the second quarter are expected to be much more modest. The fall in revenues of metallurgy and the coal industry from spring 2022 was influenced by higher transportation costs as a result of the turn to the East, insufficient capacity of the Baikal-Amur Mainline and Trans-Siberian Railway, sales of products at a large discount to Asian consumers, and lower export revenues due to the strengthening of the ruble. All these factors will have a negative impact on the volume of the taxable base and revenues of regional budgets. The article was written using methods of vertical and horizontal data analysis, methods of comparison and forecasting, and the method of expert evaluations. The information base of the study was the domestic and foreign literature on the development of metallurgical and coal industries; financial statements and operating results of the largest Russian corporations of ferrous metallurgy (PJSC Severstal), nonferrous metallurgy (PJSC Nornickel) and coal industry (JSC CC Kuzbassrazrezugol); data of the Federal Tax Service in the Vologda and Kemerovo Oblasts, and Krasnoyarsk Krai; information of Forbes.ru; data of information and news portals.

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Conditions and factors promoting the movement of agricultural producers towards innovation-based development

Conditions and factors promoting the movement of agricultural producers towards innovation-based development

Sovetov Pavel Mikhailovich, Volkova Svetlana Anatolevna, Sovetova Nadezhda Pavlovna

Статья научная

The article considers the results of the questionnaire survey carried out in 2011-2013 by the Department of Production Management at the Vologda State Dairy Farming Academy named after N.V. Vereshchagin. The survey was supported by the Vologda Oblast Department of Agriculture, FoodStocks and Trade in the framework of ongoing research into the issues of transition of agricultural economy to innovation development. The authors present and systematize the opinions of the heads of the region's agricultural enterprises concerning the challenges and opportunities of innovation-investment activity of agricultural organizations.

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Construction complex of the region: current state and innovative potential

Construction complex of the region: current state and innovative potential

Gubanova Elena Sergeyevna, Vorontsova Tatyana Vladimirovna

Статья научная

Construction industry has traditionally established itself as a leading choice; it is designed to reproduce fixed assets, carry on renovation, modernization, technical re-equipment of material goods production and solving social issues on the modern technical basis. Despite the profound crisis of the industry associated with the transition to a market economic model such as a high degree of fixed capital assets depreciation, the low investment activity of construction companies, a high materials output ratio, etc., the growth potential of construction industry is sufficient. It is possible to solve these problems by promoting innovation activity of construction companies, aimed at reducing the cost of finished products, shortening of construction time and enterprises' competitive recovery.

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Current trends and problems of development of the arctic marine freight traffic

Current trends and problems of development of the arctic marine freight traffic

Selin Vladimir Stepanovich

Статья научная

The article analyzes the trends and evaluates the prospects of functioning of the Northern Sea Route. It shows that after the change of its management model its freight traffic has dropped 4-fold, and in the Eastern sector (outside the Vilkitsky Strait) - 40-fold. In the recent years there has been a certain revival of transportation, including transit, which reached its maximum of 1.27 million tons in 2012. However, over the next two years they declined again; the drop was particularly significant in 2014 and amounted to a total of 240 thousand tons. The main problem is that this rather complex system is influenced by many factors, often contradictory and poorly predictable. Thus, the growing need for energy resources determines the overall need for developing the Arctic shelf. However, the possibility of climate cooling and the deterioration of ice situation can influence the possibility of transporting these resources. Besides, the Ukrainian crisis followed by the “war of sanctions” will cause a significant decline, especially in the medium term, the attractiveness of the European oil and gas market, which will cause the shift of strategic interests of Russian companies to the Asia-Pacific region...

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Deep processing - the main direction in enhancing the efficiency of fish utilization

Deep processing - the main direction in enhancing the efficiency of fish utilization

Vasilyev Anatoliy Mikhailovich

Статья научная

The article proves that the modern level of processing of catches does not correspond to the objectives of marine fishing development contained in the Concept for the development of fishery in the Russian Federation for the period until 2020 and the Russian Federation State Programme “Development of fishery complex”. The article proves that to achieve the targets set out in the documents, the following measures should be carried out: the development of coastal fishing, the introduction of innovation technologies and equipment at coastal enterprises, the creation of integrated enterprises for production and processing of aquatic organisms, the enhancement of export efficiency, the promotion of unloading fish products onto Russia’s shores.

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Determinants of innovation activity of Russian pharmaceutical manufacturers

Determinants of innovation activity of Russian pharmaceutical manufacturers

Berkovich Margarita I., Volin Andrei Yu.

Статья научная

The article presents the findings of an empirical study on the main determinants of innovation activity of Russian pharmaceutical manufacturers. We substantiate the application of two indicators that characterize innovation activity of pharmaceutical manufacturers: the first is the ratio of the number of the organization’s proprietary intellectual property objects to those used under license; the second is the number of studies conducted by pharmaceutical manufacturers for original and reproduced medicines. Two-dimensional cluster analysis (the k-means clustering, excluding repetitions, using Euclidean distances) is used to classify enterprises as innovation-active. We highlight major factors influencing innovation activity of pharmaceutical manufacturers directly on the basis of the content analysis of Russian and foreign scientific works published on this topic. We analyze the selected determinants using statistical and econometric tools. The following statistical criteria are applied: Pearson’s chi-squared test and Fisher’s exact test for qualitative (dichotomous) indicators, as well as Student’s t-test and the Mann - Whitney test to analyze quantitative indicators. Using discriminant analysis of the main determinants of innovation activity of Russian pharmaceutical enterprises we reveal the most significant determinants, primarily those that directly characterize the size of industrial enterprises. Additionally, we prove that widespread processes such as mergers and acquisitions of pharmaceutical manufacturers contribute to the possibility of accumulating resources necessary for innovation development of pharmaceutical manufacturers; however, these processes have certain negative effects associated with an increase in the oligopolization of pharmaceutical markets.

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Economic evaluation of the market potential of fruit and berry production in the regions of the European North of the Russian Federation

Economic evaluation of the market potential of fruit and berry production in the regions of the European North of the Russian Federation

Kozmenko Sergey Yuryevich, Uskov Vladimir Sergeyevich

Статья научная

The article examines regional peculiarities of the local market formation of fruit and berry production in the Russian North from the theoretic perspective of new economic geography. It examines modern market development trends, presents the economic estimation of the market development potential of fruit and berry production in the regions of the European North of the Russian Federation.

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Economic risks of agricultural organizations’ activity in the Vologda oblast in the context of Russia's membership in WTO

Economic risks of agricultural organizations’ activity in the Vologda oblast in the context of Russia's membership in WTO

Ivanova Marina Nikolayevna

Статья научная

Russia’s accession to the World Trade Organization provides the domestic agribusiness with a fundamentally new economic and organizational-legal business environment. The article analyzes the financial condition of agricultural organizations in the Vologda Oblast, indicates increasing acuity of the problems in the industry and identifies the economic risks for the agricultural commodity producers of the northern region in the context of Russia’s membership in WTO. It substantiates the top priority measures to improve the financial sustainability of agricultural organizations and the need for changes in the mechanism of state support for the industry.

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Estimation of elaboration of strategic and program policy documents stipulating tourism development in the northern regions of Russia

Estimation of elaboration of strategic and program policy documents stipulating tourism development in the northern regions of Russia

Smirennikova Elena Vladimirovna, Karmakulova Anna Vyacheslavovna

Статья научная

The authors performed critical analysis of 26 strategic and program documents of federal and regional significance, governing the development of tourism, to allocate problems and targets of the development of tourism and risks of realization of the tourism development programs. The authors used scoring and expert evaluation methods to develop the technique, which estimates the elaboration of strategic and policy documents governing the development of tourism. The developed technique is used for evaluation of strategic and program documents of the northern regions of Russia. The guidelines for the establishment of regional tourism development programs are given.

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Evaluation of water bioresources management efficiency in domestic fishing industry

Evaluation of water bioresources management efficiency in domestic fishing industry

Mikhailova Elena G.

Статья научная

Efficient use of natural resources is an integral part of sustainable development. Resource management efficiency criteria should cover all components of sustainable development: economic, environmental and social. The purpose for the study is to assess the possibility of applying tools for measuring natural resources management efficiency in relation to water biological resources. The most developed are methodological approaches to assessing the economic efficiency of resource management. Despite the importance of environmental assessment and the availability of the methodological framework, there still remain some gaps in data availability for analyzing the impact of the fishing industry on the environment. The specific features of natural resources extraction and processing are particularly evident in indicators of environmental efficiency of resource saving. The paper substantiates the importance of taking into account emissions of water bioresources, unreported fishing, technological losses in assessing water bioresources management efficiency...

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Financial situation in regional energy supply

Financial situation in regional energy supply

Chaika Larisa Viktorovna

Статья научная

It is important to monitor the financial condition of energy supply organizations in regional management and development of energy infrastructure. This condition depends on economic factors, tariff regulation and budget subsidies. The article presents indicators of aggregated financial statistics on energy supply in the regions of Russia's European North. For the purpose of comparative analysis, the author formed a comprehensive indicator of financial stability and evaluated trends in the dynamics of past due debt and profitability. The analysis shows the following sectoral and regional characteristics: the financial situation in the electric power sector is relatively stable, but it is unsatisfactory in heat supply; the increase in negative trends, such as the decrease in repayment ability, low and negative profitability, and the accumulation of considerable arrears. Financial instability becomes a system-wide characteristic of heat supply. It is necessary to introduce a multi-step process of financial recovery of the industry as a whole...

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Improvement of state regulation of the agrarian sector of the sub-arctic and arctic areas under the WTO membership

Improvement of state regulation of the agrarian sector of the sub-arctic and arctic areas under the WTO membership

Ivanov Valentin Aleksandrovich

Статья научная

The article substantiates the necessity to change the role of the state in technological and socio-economic development of the agricultural sector. The author considers the forms and methods of state regulation and analyses the current budget support provided to agriculture; he highlights its drawbacks with regard to sub-arctic and arctic territories of the Republic of Komi. The article shows the influence of state support on the farmers' level of income and identifies modernization risks and threats under Russia's WTO membership. The author proposes measures to improve state support of the agrarian sector and change the adverse conditions of its functioning. He substantiates the approach that helps improve the state regulation of the agrarian sector in the framework of regional and municipal programs for rural development.

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